The Netherlands (1897—1973)
After studying art at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Rotterdam, Schuitema started his career as a painter but soon turned to advertising, applying the principles of Constructivism and De Stijl into commercial work. He joined the Ring neue Werbegestalter (Circle of New Advertising Designers) with Schwitters, Moholy-Nagy, Swart, Bayer and Tschichold. He excelled in graphic design and typeface design but also practiced furniture making and painting. From 1926 he started to experiment with photography, mainly on photomontages. After WWII he focused on filmmaking and founded the Dutch Cooperative of Film Production. He also presented his short movie Les Ponts de la Meuse at the Cannes Film Festival in 1946.